The following post was first published in Current Psychiatry, published September 2017, Vol. 16, No. 9, p. 20-28. Check out the article on Current Psychiatry or listen to Dr. Raffi discuss treatment of menstrual–related mood and anxiety disorders. By Edwin R. Raffi, MD, MPH, & Marlene P. Freeman, MD In an age when psychiatry strives to identify […]
Tag Archives | PMDD
PMDD or premenstrual dysphoric disorder has always been a bit of mystery. We explain that PMDD is triggered by changes in reproductive hormone levels, but when you look at hormone levels in women with PMDD, they do not differ significantly from the hormone levels of women without PMDD. Another question is why some women […]
St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an herbal preparation which has been shown, in some studies, to be effective for the treatment of mild to moderate depressive symptoms. St. John’s wort is now one of the most commonly used herbal products in the United States and is widely used in Europe. We don’t know exactly […]
Many endocrinological, physical, and psychological changes occur in the adolescent years. Dysmenorrhea,or painful menses, is a relatively common complaint among adolescent girls. A recent study in the Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology explored the relationship between mood disorders and dysmenorrhea in adolescence. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the occurrence of negative physical, psychological […]
Multiple studies support the efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). In the initial studies, treatment was administered daily throughout the entire menstrual cycle. Researchers observed that for the treatment of PMDD, SRIs seemed to work more rapidly, taking effect within a few days of treatment initiation (as […]
For women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first line of pharmacological treatment. A significant body of evidence, including numerous double-blind, randomized studies, supports the effectiveness of SSRIs in reducing both the emotional, as well as physical symptoms, of PMS and PMDD. In general, women respond to low doses […]
Current research suggests that women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) have an abnormal affective response to normal hormonal shifts that occur during the menstrual cycle. Some researchers have hypothesized a metabolite of progesterone (PROG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), may mediate this sensitivity. In rodents, exposure to or withdrawal from ALLO modulates GABA-A receptors and, in this way, […]
An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal or oral contraceptives (OCs). Clinically it is found that some women report depression or mood swings with oral contraceptives; however, many women seem to tolerate hormonal contraceptive without any effects on mood. Despite the prevalence of OC usage, few studies have explored the association between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbance.
About 75% of women with regular menstrual cycles report unpleasant physical or psychological symptoms premenstrually. For the majority of women, these symptoms are mild and tolerable. However, some women have more severe and disabling symptoms, or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Several years ago, a large, multicenter trial of calcium supplementation found that calcium (600 mg twice a day) significantly reduced both the physical and emotional symptoms of PMS; however, it has not been clear whether calcium supplementation might be effective for more severe premenstrual symptoms or PMDD.
Women with premenstrual symptoms (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder experience symptoms during the premenstrual phase of their cycles. Because levels of estrogen and progesterone do not differ significantly between women with PMS and those without, it has long been hypothesized that PMS/PMDD represents an abnormal response to normal hormonal fluctuations (Schmidt et al, 1998).