In community-based and clinical studies, it has been observed that about 60% of women with mood disorders experience worsening of their mood during the premenstrual phase of their cycle.  While this is often referred to as premenstrual dysphoric disorder or PMDD, it is more accurate — and clinically important — to recognize this as premenstrual  exacerbation of a mood disorder or PME.

In contrast to PMDD, PME is understudied.   A recent review from Kuehner and Nayman (full text available HERE) discusses the diagnosis of PME, as well as the epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and treatment of PME in women with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.


Kuehner C, Nayman S. Premenstrual Exacerbations of Mood Disorders: Findings and Knowledge Gaps. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2021;23(11):78. doi:10.1007/s11920-021-01286-0

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