General Information

Raffi ER, Freeman MP. The etiology of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: 5 interwoven pieces. Clinical Psychiatry. 2017 Sep;16(9): 20-28.

Braverman PK. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2007 Feb;20(1):3-12.

Bailey JW, Cohen LS. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in women who seek treatment for premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine 1999; 8(9); 1181-1184.

Bloch M, Schmidt PJ, Rubinow DR. Premenstrual syndrome: evidence for symptom stability across cycles. Am J Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;154(12):1741-6.

Di Giulio G, Reissing ED. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: prevalence, diagnostic considerations, and controversies. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Dec;27(4):201-10.

Mishell DR Jr. Premenstrual disorders: epidemiology and disease burden. Am J Manag Care. 2005 Dec;11(16 Suppl):S473-9.

Mortola JF. Premenstrual syndrome. Curr Ther Endocrinol Metab 1997; 6: 251-6.

Pearlstein T. Premenstrual syndrome. In: Manu P, ed. Functional Somatic Syndromes: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; 1998:80-97.

Soares CN, Cohen LS, Otto MW, Harlow BL. Characteristics of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) Who Did or Did Not Report History of Depression: A Preliminary Report of the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles. Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine 2001; 10(9);873-878.

Treatments: General

Altshuler LL, Cohen LS, Moline ML, Kahn DA, Carpenter D, Docherty JP. Expert Consensus Panel for Depression in Women. The Expert Consensus Guideline Series. Treatment of depression in women. Postgrad Med 2001 Mar;(Spec No):1-107.

Altshuler LL, Hendrick V, Parry B. Pharmacologic management of premenstrual disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry 1995; 2: 223-245.

Kroll R, Rapkin A. Treatment of premenstrual disorders. J Reprod Med. 2006 Apr;51(4 Suppl):359-70

Pearlstein T, Steiner M. Non-antidepressant treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61 Suppl 12: 22-27.

Rapkin AJ. New treatment approaches for premenstrual disorders. Am J Manag Care. 2005 Dec;11(16 Suppl):S480-91.

Rapkin A. A review of treatment of premenstrual syndrome & premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2003. 28:39-53.

Treatments: Hormonal Interventions

Lybrel–a continuous oral contraceptive. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;111(1):211-2

Coffee AL, Kuehl TJ, Willis S, Sulak PJ . Oral contraceptives and premenstrual symptoms: comparison of a 21/7 and extended regimen. Am J Obstet Gynecol.2006 Nov;195(5):1311-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21.

Coffee AL, Sulak PJ, Kuehl TJ. Long-term assessment of symptomatology and satisfaction of an extended oral contraceptive regimen. Contraception. 2007 Jun;75(6):444-9. Epub 2007 Mar 23.

Joffe H, Cohen LS, Harlow BL. Impact of oral contraceptive pill use on premenstrual mood: predictors of improvement and deterioration. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Dec; 189(6): 1523-30.

Joffe H, Petrillo LF, Viguera AC, Gottshcall H, Soares CN, Hall JE, Cohen LS. Treatment of premenstrual worsening of depression with adjunctive oral contraceptive pills: a preliminary report. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Dec;68(12):1954-62.

Sulak PJ. Ovulation suppression of premenstrual symptoms using oral contraceptives. Am J Manag Care. 2005 Dec;11(16 Suppl):S492-7.

Usman SB, Indusekhar R, O’Brien S. Hormonal management of premenstrual syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Aug 29.

Yonkers KA, Brown C, Pearlstein TB, Foegh M, Sampson-Landers C, Rapkin A. Efficacy of a New Low-Dose Oral Contraceptive With Drospirenone in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Obstet Gynecol 106(3):492-501. 2005.

Treatments: Antidepressants

Cohen LS, Miner C, Brown EW, Freeman E, Halbreich U, Sundell K, McCray S. Premenstrual daily fluoxetine for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a placebo-controlled, clinical trial using computerized diaries. Obstet Gynecol. 100(3):435-44. 2002.

Cohen LS, Soares CN, Yonkers KA, Bellew KM, Bridges IM, Steiner M. Paroxetine Controlled Release for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Psychosom Med 2004 Sep-Oct;66(5):707-13.

Cohen LS, Soares CN, Lyster A, Cassano P, Brandes M, Leblanc GA. Efficacy and tolerability of premenstrual use of venlafaxine (flexible dose) in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 24(5):540-3. 2004.

Freeman EW, Sondheimer SJ, Sammel MD, Ferdousi T, Lin H. A preliminary study of luteal phase versus symptom-onset dosing with escitalopram for premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;66(6):769-73.

Freeman EW, Rickels K, Sondheimer SJ, Polansky M, Xiao S. Continuous or intermittent dosing with sertraline for patients with severe premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Psychiatry 161(2):343-351. 2004.

Freeman EW, Rickels K, Yonkers KA, Kunz NR, McPherson M, Upton GV. Venlafaxine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol 2001 Nov; 98(5 Pt 1):737-44.

Halbreich U, Smoller J. Intermittent luteal-phase sertraline treatment of dysphoric premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58: 399-402.

Halbreich U, Bergeron R, Yonkers KA, Freeman E, Stout AL, and Cohen LS. Efficacy of Intermittent, Luteal Phase Sertraline Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Obstet Gynecol 2002 Dec; 100(6):1219-1229.

Kornstein SG, Pearlstein TB, Fayyad R, Farfel GM, Gillespie JA. Low-dose sertraline in the treatment of moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome: efficacy of 3 dosing strategies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;67(10):1624-32.

Landén M, Nissbrandt H, Allgulander C, Sörvik K, Ysander C, Eriksson E. Placebo-controlled Trial Comparing Intermittent and Continuous Paroxetine in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Jan;32(1):153-61.

Pearlstein T, Halbreich U, Batzar ED, Brown CS, Endicott J, Frank E, Freeman EW, Harrison WM, Haskett RF, Stout AL, Yonkers KA. Psychosocial Functioning in Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Before and After Treatment with Sertraline or a Placebo. J Clin Psychiatry 2000 Feb;61(2):101-9.

Pearlstein T, Stone A, et al. Comparison of fluoxetine, buproprion, and placebo in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997; 17: 261-266. Steiner M: Premenstrual Syndromes. Annu. Rev. Med. 1997; 48: 447-455.

Ramos MG, Hara C, Rocha FL. Duloxetine Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Case Reports. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Sep 15.

Steiner M, Korzekwa M, Lamont J, Wilkins A. Intermittent fluoxetine dosing in the treatment of women with premenstrual dysphoria. Psychopharmacol Bull 1997; 33: 771-774.

Steiner M, Pearlstein T, Cohen LS, Endicott J, Kornstein SG, Roberts C, Roberts DL, Yonkers K. Expert guidelines for the treatment of severe PMS, PMDD, and comorbidities: the role of SSRIs. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006 Jan-Feb;15(1):57-69

Steiner M, Steinberg S, Steward D, Carter D, Berger C, Reid R, Grover D, Streiner D. Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. New Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1529-34.

Wood SH, Mortola JF, Chan YF, Moossazadeh F, Yen SS. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with fluoxetine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 80: 339-344.

Yonkers KA, Halbreich U, Freeman E, Brown C, Endicott J, Frank E, Parry B, Pearlstein T, Severino S, Stout A, Stone A, Harrison W. Symptomatic improvement of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with sertraline treatment. JAMA 1997; 278: 983-988.

Yonkers KA, Holthausen GA, Poschman K, Howell HB. Symptom-onset treatment for women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Apr;26(2):198-202.

Yonkers KA, Pearlstein T, Fayyad R, Gillespie JA. Luteal phase treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder improves symptoms that continue into the postmenstrual phase. J Affect Disord. 2005 Apr;85(3):317-21.

Treatments: Non-Pharmacologic and Complementary and Alternative Medicines

Krasnik C, Montori VM, Guyatt GH, Heels-Ansdell D, Busse JW; Medically Unexplained Syndromes Study Group. The effect of bright light therapy on depression associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep;193(3 Pt 1):658-61.

Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, Tian J. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998 Aug;179(2):444-52.

Yamada K, Kanba S. Effectiveness of kamishoyosan for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: open-labeled pilot study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci.2007 Jun;61(3):323-5