Cognition

Hormone Replacement in Younger Menopausal Women: No Cognitive Benefit Detected

Early observational studies suggested that postmenopausal hormone treatment may improve cognitive functioning in women; however, studies from the Women’s Health Initiative have shown that estrogen replacement therapy started in postmenopausal women (65 years or older) [...]

Earlier Age of Surgical Menopause Associated with More Significant Cognitive Decline

Previous studies have shown that the abrupt hormonal changes that occur after a surgical menopause (i.e., removal of the ovaries) negatively affect cognition in women.  According to a recent study, "Women who were younger at the time of surgical menopause have a more rapid rate (steeper slope) of cognitive decline than women who were older at the time of surgery or than women undergoing natural menopause."  Earlier age at menopause was also associated with increased Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology, in particular neuritic plaques.