Early observational studies suggested that postmenopausal hormone treatment may improve cognitive functioning in women; however, studies from the Women’s Health Initiative have shown that estrogen replacement therapy started in postmenopausal women (65 years or older) [...]
A recent study of 2507 menopausal women suggests that menopausal women with higher caffeine intake are more likely to have hot flashes and night sweats; however, they have fewer problems with mood, memory, and concentration. [...]
Previous studies have shown that the abrupt hormonal changes that occur after a surgical menopause (i.e., removal of the ovaries) negatively affect cognition in women. According to a recent study, "Women who were younger at the time of surgical menopause have a more rapid rate (steeper slope) of cognitive decline than women who were older at the time of surgery or than women undergoing natural menopause." Earlier age at menopause was also associated with increased Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology, in particular neuritic plaques.
During pregnancy, many women complain that they feel more forgetful or less sharp than before their pregnancy.