|The role of prenatal stress as a pathway to personality disorder: longitudinal birth cohort study.|
Brannigan R, Tanskanen A, Huttunen MO, Cannon M, Leacy FP, Clarke MC. Br J Psychiatry. 2019 Sep 6:1-5.
Compared to children with no exposure to prenatal stress, children exposed to any maternal stress during gestation had three times the odds of developing a personality disorder (odds ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.59–4.80). Those exposed to moderate stress had three times the odds (odds ratio 3.13, 95% CI 1.42–6.88), and those exposed to severe stress had seven times the odds (odds ratio 7.06, 95% CI 2.10–23.81) of developing a personality disorder. These associations remained after adjusting for parental psychiatric history, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, prenatal smoking and antenatal depression.
Maternal postpartum depression is a risk factor for infant emotional variability at 4 months.
Vaever MS, Pedersen IE, Smith-Nielsen J, Tharner A. Infant Ment Health J. 2020 Feb 14.
When infants of depressed mothers display high negative facial affect or gaze off, these expressions are more sustained, indicating lower infant ability to calm down and re-engage, interpreted as a disturbance in self-regulation.
Maternal antenatal anxiety and electrophysiological functioning amongst a sub-set of preschoolers participating in the GUSTO cohort.
Tan HK, Goh SKY, Tsotsi S, Bruntraeger M, Chen HY, Broekman B, Tan KH, Chong YS, Meaney MJ, Qiu A, Rifkin-Graboi A. BMC Psychiatry. 2020 Feb 12;20(1):62. Free Article
Antenatal anxiety and depression was associated with specific patterns of electrophysiological functioning in preschoolers and remained a significant predictor after controlling for postpartum mental health.
Maternal Antenatal Depression and Early Childhood Sleep: Potential Pathways Through Infant Temperament.
Kim Y, Bird A, Peterson E, Underwood L, Morton SMB, Grant CC. J Pediatr Psychol. 2020 Mar 1;45(2):203-217
Antenatal depression is independently associated with more frequent nighttime awakenings in early childhood.
The effects of paternal perinatal depression on socioemotional and behavioral development of children: A meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Cui C, Li M, Yang Y, Liu C, Cao P, Wang L. Psychiatry Res. 2020 Feb;284:112775
Paternal PPD may play a significant role in adversely impacting the emotional and behavioral development in children during early childhood.
The role of posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms in mother-infant bonding.
Rados SN et al, J of Affect Disord 2020.
Both PTSD and depressive symptoms are related to impaired mother-infant bonding. Birth-related PTSD symptoms did not have an effect on bonding or depressive symptoms; however, pre-existing PTSD symptoms had an indirect effect on bonding via depressive symptoms.
Early infant temperament shapes the nature of mother-infant bonding in the first postpartum year
Takacs L et al. Infant Behav Develop, Feb 2020.
Maternal bonding in the first week postpartum may temporarily affect child temperament, but infant’s temperament several weeks after birth – rather than several months postpartum – plays a pervasive role in shaping the long-lasting nature of the mother-child relationship.
Maternal Perinatal Mental Health and Infant and Toddler Neurodevelopment – Evidence from Low and Middle-Income Countries. A Systematic Review.
Burger M et al. J Affect Disord 2020.
Multiple risk factors in low and middle-income countries (LAMICs) may contribute to maternal mental health conditions; however, associations between perinatal mental health and child development in LAMICs are inconclusive due to a limited number of papers.